Istok Volga River WHERE IS

Author: | 08/25/2018

1. Река Волга в Угличе.jpg
Regions Tver region, Moscow region, Yaroslavl region, Kostroma region, Ivanovo region, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Mari El, Chuvashia, Tatarstan, Ulyanovsk region, Samara region, Saratov region, Volgograd region, Astrakhan region, Kalmykia
Волга (Европейская часть России)

Volga (March Yul, Chuvash Atӑl tat Idel, legs Edil, Calm Iҗil-һol, Kazakh Edil......) - a river in the European part of Russia. A small part of the Volga delta, outside the mainstream of the river, located on the territory of Kazakhstan. Volga is one of the largest rivers in the world and the largest water content and length in Europe. Furthermore, Volga is the world's largest river, which flows into the undrained (internal) body of water [3] .

The river is 3,530 km (before the construction of reservoirs - 3690 km), and the area of its drainage basin - 1360 thousand square kilometers. [4] . The annual flow is 254 km 3 .

On the Volga there are four city-millionaire (from source to mouth): Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan, Samara and Volgograd.

In the period 30-80-ies of XX century on the Volga to build eight hydroelectric plants that are part of the Volga-Kama cascade.

Adjacent to the Volga part of Russia called the Volga region.

In the ancient authors of the first centuries BC. e. (Ptolemy and Ammian Marcellinus) Volga called Ra [5] , Lat. Rha (cf. Moksha Electric Locomotive Repair Plant and Rav -... Both names of Iranian origin). The Byzantine chronicler Theophanes the Confessor, describing a geographical names Northern Black Sea, several times mentions the "greatest river flowing down from the ocean on the ground and called Sarmatian Ατελ» [6] . In the Middle Ages the Volga Kama and Belaya known as Itil (Wed modern name of the head. Iҙel tat. Idel, legs. Edil, Kaz. Edіl, Chuvash. Atӑl, Calm. Iҗil). Modern Mari Yule comes from the tat. Elga "creek, river".

Russian name of the Volga (ancient Rus. Vlga) derived from the Proto-Slavic * Vlga , Wed. damp - vologa - moisture. For the Slavic version of the origin of the name says Vlga presence of rivers in the Czech Republic and Wilga (Pol.) Russian. Poland [7] [8] .

Based on the fact that the upper reaches of the Volga is located in an area where widely represented Waternames Balta origin, proposed etymology of the Baltic languages: ilga «long, long» → Lake. Volga → p. Volga [9] ; Valka «stream, small river" [10] . Alternative version displays the name of the river of the Baltic and Finnish (Finnish Valkea, est valge «white» Wed.. Vologda ) and Mari (ancient Mari *. Jylγ (from the Turks), the present-day March Yul;... March Volgydo. "light") languages.

The geological history of the Volga River begins in the Pliocene 5 million years ago. Source of the river were the Ural Mountains and the mainstream has gone through the Kama. Modern headwaters represents a slight flush. Paleo-Volga empties into the Caspian Sea in the area of modern Baku. Paleo-Volga flowed into the canyon and represented rough mountain river. At this time, the region's climate was subtropical, and on the banks of the river grew magnolia [11] . 3-1 million years ago, raising the sea level led to the disappearance of paleo-Volga, as the Caspian began to reach the north to the Kama Estuary. Later, the Ice Age and the subsequent melting of glaciers formed the modern type of the river. In the era of the Dnieper glaciation (300 thous. Years ago) glacier covered almost the entire river basin up to the present-day Volgograd. There is a theory that to the Dnieper glaciation Volga were not there, Verhnevolzhskie bed fell into a Paleo-Don, and flowed into the Paleo-Cam into the Caspian Sea [12] .

He throws a Persian princess in the Volga

Ilya Repin. "Barge Haulers on the Volga". 1873

It is believed that the first mention of the Volga is found in the writings of the ancient Greek historian Herodotus (V in. BC. E.), In a story about the campaign of the Persian king Darius I against the Scythians. According to Herodotus, Darius in pursuit of the Scythians across the river Tanais (present. Don), stopped on the river Dap [13] . River Oar try to identify with the Volga, although Herodotus also said that Oar falls into Meotida (modern. The Sea of Azov).

Some researchers see in the Volga River, which is reported by Diodorus of Sicily (ca. 90-30 BCE....):

First they [Scythians] lived in very small quantities in the Arax River and were despised for their shame. But in ancient times under the control of one belligerent and featuring strategic skills they have acquired the king himself to the mountains to the Caucasus, and in the lowlands and coasts Ocean Maeotis lake - and other areas to the river Tanais .

On the basis of this information, trying to identify the Araks Diodorus with the Volga.

In written sources of Roman II-IV centuries Volga River geographically identified as Ra - "generous" in Arabic sources of IX century called Atelier - "river of rivers, the great river." In the earliest ancient chronicles, "The Tale of Bygone Years", it says: " From the forest Volokovskogo [present-day. Valdai Hills] will flow Volga to the east and the sea ... vtechot Hvalisskoe [present-day. Caspian Sea]".

According to medieval Turkic and Arab-Persian geographical tradition, the source of the river Itil was located near the confluence of Ak-Idel (White), Cook-Idel (Dema) and Kara-Idel (Ufa). Later Russian maps Ak-Idel designated as white Volga (Volozhka).

The geographical position of the Volga River and tributaries has resulted in the Volga trade route. Through Volgodonsk Perevoloki communicate with Don-Sea of ​​Azov-Black Sea. From the Arab caliphate exported fabrics, metals, from the Slavic lands - weapons (swords), furs, wax, honey. In IX-X centuries in the trade a significant role played by such centers as the Khazar Itil at the mouth, Bulgar Bulgar in the Middle Volga, Russian Rostov, Suzdal, Murom in the Upper Volga region. After the campaign of Prince Svyatoslav in 965 of the Volga and the defeat of many of the Khazar cities, the value of the Volga trade route falls, and many of the ancient trading cities are in decline. Starting from the XI century, the majority of Russian foreign trade passes through the Dnieper trade route, aided by the prince's policy focused on trade and religious ties with the Byzantine Empire. During this period, the Volga trade greatly weakened, and in the XIII century, the Mongol-Tatar invasion disrupted economic ties, in addition to the upper basin of the Volga, where the active role played Novgorod, Tver and the city of Vladimir-Suzdal. Since the XV century, the value of the trade route is reduced, increasing the role of centers such as Kazan, Nizhni Novgorod, Astrakhan. Conquest of Ivan the Terrible in the middle of the XVI century Kazan and Astrakhan khanate led to the unification of the whole of the Volga river system in the hands of Russia, which contributed to the flourishing of the Volga trade in the XVII century. There are new large cities - Samara, Saratov, Tsaritsyn; They play an important role Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Nizhny Novgorod, Simbirsk. The Volga go large convoys (up to 500). In the XVIII century, the main trade routes moved to the West, and economic development is constrained by a weak lower Volga populated and raids nomads. Volga basin in the XVII-XVIII centuries was the main area of ​​the insurgents actions of Cossacks and peasants under the leadership of ST Razin and EI Pugachev.

In the XIX century there is a significant development of the Volga trade route after joining Mary river system basin of the Volga and the Neva (1808); there is a large river fleet (in 1820 - the first steamboat), works on the Volga boatmen enormous army (up to 300 thousand people..). It occurs large transportation bread, salt, fish oil and cotton later.

Development of the Civil War in Russia 1917-1922 largely due to the establishment in 1918 in a number of cities of the Volga power Constituent Assembly Committee. Regaining control of the Bolsheviks over the river is considered to be an important turning point of the Civil War, as the control over the river provides access to the resources of grain and oil of Baku. An important role in the Civil War played defense Tsaritsyn, in which a large part taken by Stalin, that was the reason for the renaming of Tsaritsyn in Stalingrad.

In the years of socialist construction in connection with the industrialization of the whole country has increased the value of Volga Route. Since the late 30-ies of XX century the Volga begins to also be used as a source of hydroelectric power. During the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 took place on the Volga and the most crucial and bloodiest Rzhevskaya Stalingrad battle. In the postwar period, the economic role of the Volga increased significantly, especially after the establishment of a number of large reservoirs and hydropower plants.

View of the Volga satellite

Volga basin

Volga originates in the Valdai Hills (at an altitude of 228 meters) and flows into the Caspian Sea. Mouth of the river is 28 meters below sea level. Overall drop - 256 meters. Volga - the largest river in the world of internal drainage, that is not flowing into the world's oceans.

The river system of the Volga basin includes 151,000 streams total length of 574 thousand. Km. Volga takes about 200 tributaries. Left tributaries and numerous high-water right. After Kamyshino significant tributaries there.

Volga basin occupies about ⅓ of European Russia and extends from the Valdai and the Central highlands in the west to the Ural Mountains in the east. The basic, nourishing part of the catchment area of the Volga River, from its source to the city of Nizhny Novgorod and Kazan, located in the forest zone, the middle part of the basin to the city of Samara and Saratov - in the forest-steppe zone, the lower part - in the steppe zone to Volgograd, and to the south - in the semi-arid zone . Volga can be divided into three parts: the upper Volga - from the source to the mouth of the Oka, the Middle Volga - from the confluence of the Oka River to the mouth of the Kama and the Lower Volga - from the confluence of the Kama River to the confluence of the Caspian Sea [15] .

source of the Volga

Source of the Volga - the key Volgoverkhovye the village in the Tver region. In the upper reaches, within the Valdai Hills, Volga passes through small lakes - Small and Large Verkhita, then through the large lakes system, known as the Upper Volga lakes: Sterzh, Vselug, Peno and the Volga, united in the upper reservoir.

After passing through the system of Upper Volga lakes in 1843 it was built the dam (Upper Volga beyshlot) to regulate water runoff and maintain navigable depths at low water.

The first major locality on the Volga river from its source - the city of Rzhev. Behind it begins shipping zone [16] .

Between the cities of Tver and Rybinsk on the Volga created Ivankovskoe Reservoir (the so-called Moscow Sea) to the dam and hydropower plant in Dubna, Uglich Reservoir (in Uglich HPP) - Rybinsk Reservoir (Rybinsk HPP in). In the Rybinsk district - Yaroslavl and Kostroma lower river flows in a narrow valley between high shores, crossing Uglich Danilov and Galich-Chuhlomskuyu hill. Further along the Volga flows Unzhensky and Balakhna lowlands. At Gorodtsa (above Lower Novgorod) Volga partitioned Nizhegorodskaya HPP dam forms Gor'kovskoe reservoir.

Volga in Nizhny Novgorod

In the middle reaches, below the confluence of the Oka, the Volga becomes more affluent. It flows along the northern edge of the Volga Uplands. The right bank of the river is high, the left - lowland. In Cheboksary Cheboksary power plant is built, above the dam where the reservoir is located Cheboksary. The largest tributaries of the Volga River in its middle reaches - Oka, Sura, and Vetluga Sviyaga.

In the downstream, after the confluence of the Kama, the Volga becomes a mighty river. It flows here along the Volga Uplands. Around Togliatti, the Samara Bend above, which is formed by the Volga, skirting the Zhiguli Mountains, built dam Zhigulevskaya HPP; Kuibyshevskoe extends above the dam reservoir. On the Volga River near the town of Balakovo, Saratov HPP dam built. Above the dam is the Saratov Reservoir. Lower Volga takes a relatively small tributaries - Juice, Samara, Great Irgiz Eruslan. In Volgograd separates the left sleeve in the area from the Volga Volga HEP - Ahtuba (length 537 km), which flows parallel to the main channel. Extensive space between Volga and Akhtuba, rough numerous channels and along the ancient called Volga-Ahtubinskoj flood plain; width spills within this flood reached above 20-30 km. On Volga Akhtuba between the beginning and Volgograd constructed Volga HPP; Volgogradskoye extends above the dam reservoir. The forty kilometers below the dam adjoins the Volga Volga-Don channel connecting it with Tsimlyanskii reservoir Don.

Volga delta begins at the point of separation from the Volga riverbed sleeves Buzan (46 km north of Astrakhan) and is one of the largest in Russia and the largest in Europe. In the delta has sleeves 500, ducts and small rivers. The main sleeve - Buzan, Bakhtemir, Kamyzyak, Staraya Volga, Bolda, Akhtuba; It is supported in the shipping state Bakhtemir forming Volga-Caspian channel. One of the branches of the lower reaches of the Volga - river Kigach - crosses the territory of Kazakhstan. With said sleeve originates strategic conduit "Volga - Mangyshlak" providing freshwater certain areas of Mangistau region of Kazakhstan.

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Volga coast near the village of Raygorod-Lower Volga

In different periods of time Volga Delta changed its position. So,

<...> in the II century began drying up of the arid zone, reached peak in the III century. During this period, the Caspian Sea has risen to minus 33-32 m. Volga suffered an amount of water that the then mainstream could not hold, and formed a delta of the modern type. South delta stretched almost to Buzachi peninsula (north of Mangyshlak).

After the construction of the Kuibyshev reservoir boundary between the Middle and Lower Volga, some sources believe Zhigulevsk Samara HPP above. Elsewhere the boundary between the middle and lower Volga Saratov HPP is considered (in Balakovo); thus (as in Volga division into parts), belong to the bottom Volga Saratov region (except in extreme northern areas) Volgogradskaia region, Republic Kalmykia and Astrakhan region.

Effect of reservoir water level fluctuations in Volga

New Volga (northern edge Yaroslavl)

Bad weather on the Volga (Kuibyshev reservoir in Kazan)

Basic Food Volga carried snow (60% of annual runoff), ground (30%) and the rain (10%) water. The natural state is characterized by spring floods (April - June), low water availability during the summer and winter low water and autumn rainfall floods (October). Annual fluctuations in Volga to regulate Tver reached at 11 m, below the mouth Kama - 15-17 m and Astrakhan - 3 m With the construction of reservoirs Volga regulated flow, level fluctuation drastically decreased.. Severe floods have occurred on the Volga in 1709, 1719, 1853, 1908 and 1926. In addition, in connection with the rise of the level when creating reservoirs along low-lying coasts in several cities have formed a broad and often shallow swampy estuaries and backwaters, as well as built engineering defenses in the form of dams, redundant pumps and so on. N.

Average annual consumption of water in the Upper Volga beyshlota 29 m³ / s, the city of Tver - 182, in the city of Yaroslavl - 1110 in the city of Nizhny Novgorod - 2970, in the city of Samara - 7720, the city of Volgograd - 8060 m³ / s. Below Volgograd river loses about 2% of its flow through evaporation. The maximum water flow during flood periods in the past below the confluence of the Kama reached 67,000 m³ / s, while the Volgograd to spill over the floodplain did not exceed 52 000 m³ / s. In connection with the regulation of the flow maximum discharge flood fell sharply, and summer and winter low-water costs have risen strongly. The water balance of the basin of the Volga to Volgograd for the long period average: rainfall 662 mm, or 900 cubic kilometers per year, the river flow 187 mm, or 254 cubic kilometers per year, the evaporation of 475 mm, or 646 cubic kilometers per year.

Prior to the creation of reservoirs for years endured the Volga to the mouth of about 25 million tons of sediment and 40-50 million tons of dissolved minerals. Volga water temperature in the middle of summer (July) reaches 20-25 ° C. Volga in Astrakhan opened in mid-March, in the 1st half of April showdown takes place on the upper Volga and below Kamyshin on everything else over - in mid-April. Freezes in the upper and middle reaches of the end of November, at the bottom - in the beginning of December; ice-free is still about 200 days, near Astrakhan, about 260 days. With the creation of the reservoirs of the Volga thermal regime changed: on the upper reach of the duration of ice phenomena has increased, while the lower has become shorter.

Cruise ships on the Volga near Volgograd

Volga flows through the territory of 15 subjects of the Russian Federation (from source to mouth):

Geographically, the Volga basin is still in the territories of the Russian Federation:

Volga connected to:

The upper Volga basin are large forest areas in Middle and Lower Volga partly in large areas occupied cereal crops and industrial crops. Developed melon and fruit. In the Volga-Ural region - rich in oil and gas fields. Near Solikamsk - large deposits of potash. In the Lower Volga region (Lake Baskunchak, Elton) - salt.

Volga in Rzhev, the first city of the source. 1910

Volga Tver, autumn morning

Volga near the Zhiguli

The bridge over the Volga River in Saratov

Volga in Astrakhan, the last city [17]

The Volga River is home to about 70 species of fish, 40 of them fishing (Important: roach, bream, pike, carp, catfish, pike, sturgeon, sturgeon). In the days of the Russian Empire in the year there were 4 fishing season: spring (late March to May 15-20) were caught perch, bream and carp; in summer (July 15) - sturgeon (beluga, stellate sturgeon, thorn sturgeon); autumn (from September 1 to November 1), and in the winter, through the hole, they were caught all kinds. The biggest catch in the Spring and then in the fall, winter fish were caught less often. In the spawning period, from May 15 to July 15, fishing on the Volga was banned.

Sturgeon caught alive were sent down the river Volga in different cities using special boats with slots for the passage of flowing water. For salting fish alone company Sapozhnikov was spending 16 thousand tons of salt annually. In winter, in their listed sturgeon stores a length of 4 m, containing up to 200 kg of eggs. Already in the late XIX century, the number of commercial fish in the Volga greatly reduced. One is associated with an immoderate catching others - pollution of water by oil, which heated steamers [18] .

In 2017, the federal program "Preservation of and prevention of the Volga River pollution" was adopted [19] , according to which it is supposed to 2025. seriously reduce the discharge of polluted wastewater to build and modernize 26 hydraulic structures, with up to 50 thousand. Ha of agricultural land will have irrigation, and the same area will be reserved for spawning [20] . There will also be carried out dredging and cleaning of water bodies Implemented lifting sunken vessels (in 2018 they were more than 3 thousand. Units) [21] .

Volga navigable from Rzhev to the mouth [16] .

Inland waterways Volga from city Rzhev to Kolkhoznik pier (589 kilometers), jetty Kolkhoznik - Bertyul (pos Red barricades.) - 2604 km, and 40-kilometer section in the delta [22] .

River boats, which at various times have been used for navigation on the Volga, on display at the Museum of the river fleet at Volga State Water Transport University in Nizhny Novgorod.

The bridge across the Volga in Volgograd

Apart from short bridges in the upper reaches of the Volga, the first permanent bridge across the river was the Alexandrovsky railway bridge under Syzran, entered into service in 1880. Prior to that, for the crossing of goods and crews used steamers, ferries, and even earlier - large flat-bottomed boats called imported. The longest to date, the bridge across the Volga, it is the longest in Russia - President Bridge in Ulyanovsk (5825 meters).

The confluence of the Volga and the Kama. Left the Volga

Volga (left) merges with Kama

According to the catchment area for the confluence of the Volga place a bit more (if we ignore the mountainous terrain of the Kama basin, which increases the overall surface area, relatively flat surface of the Volga basin). Square considered as they have developed in vivo: 260.9 thousand km ² against 251.7 thousand square kilometers... However, in this territory Volga combines a smaller number of rivers and inferior Kama basin (66.5 ths. Rivers against 73.7 thousand.).

Water consumption Kama in place of its confluence with the Volga - 4300 m³ / s, and the Volga - 3100 m³ / s.

Prior to the merger of Volga and Kama Kama length is 1882 km [23] (up dams Kama km length was 2030 [24] ) against 1390 km in Volga [25] .

At spring tide Middle Volga 60-70% of annual runoff [26] , and in summer-autumn period of low rainfall leads to shallowing Volga [27] . On the Kama in the summer-autumn period, the drain is reduced slightly (due to ice supply from the mountain rivers of the Urals and the northern tributaries of the Kama basin), so Kama full-flowing at any time of the year.

The height of the source of the Kama 335 meters above sea level and the height of the source of the Volga - only 228 meters. Average and absolute height of the Volga basin is less than the Kama, as in the basin of the Kama are the Ural Mountains.

The first serious scientific observations of these rivers began in 1875 [28] . Then, as a result of research silt of the rivers it has been proven that Kama had existed long before the appearance of the Volga. In the first half of the Quaternary period, before the epoch of maximum glaciation, the Volga was not in its present form. There Kama, which, combining with Vishera directly flows into the Caspian Sea. Stoke modern upper Kama went north to Vychegda. Glaciation led to the reformation of the hydrographic network: Upper Volga, to give water before Don began to fall into the Kama, with almost a right angle (Kama does not change its direction of flow, and the Volga - turns almost 90 degrees). Lower Volga, and today serves as a natural extension of the Kama and Volga valley is not [29] .

From a scientific point of view, according to the majority of hydrological features, Kama is the main river, and the Volga - its influx [30] . However, considering the most important historical factor - namely, the unifying role of the Volga River in the creation of a unified Russian state, part of the river from the confluence of the Volga and the Kama to the Caspian Sea is considered to be a continuation of the Volga and Kama not. In modern times the Kama river is considered to be tributary of the Volga river, to be exact - a tributary of the Kuibyshev Reservoir on the Volga River [31] .

View of the primacy of the Kama and supports the Arab geographical traditions of the Middle Ages, which linked source system is Itil-Kama White (Arabs believed that the Kama flows into White) [32] .

After launching in 1983, the last cascade of reservoirs - Cheboksary, Volga Volgograd above actually ceased to be a river, and turned into a cascade of large lakes flow. Kama to a lesser extent is regulated by dams, and in many parts of the river to preserve the natural channel [33] .

. Spill Volga near Yaroslavl. 1871

The imaginative perception essence of Russian Volga plays a unique and central role. This is the root and stem of all the Russian people, the ideal shape. She always is animated, it attributed human qualities, and the ideal Russian man must conform to the image of the river. In literature and art Volga often, with its linked cult product. In the culture of the XIX and early XX century the Volga linked most "popular" culture representatives: Nikolai Nekrasov, Maxim Gorky, Fyodor Chaliapin. Soviet art full use of the image of the Volga, to create art in pre-revolutionary Russia. Volga is identified with the mother-homeland, it is a symbol of freedom, spaciousness, breadth and greatness of the Soviet human spirit. A central role in the construction of this image played the film "Volga, Volga" and Lyudmila Zykina sung the song "River Flows Volga".

. The Volga near the Zhiguli Mountains. 1887

  • According to popular legend, the cave in the Serpent, that of the Volga, the mythical creatures are found - divii people.
  • "Dubinushka" - Song of the Volga boatmen
  • "Down the Volga River," "Between the steep Berazhkou" - Russian folk songs
  • "Lada" - Russian folk song
  • "Volga-Rechenka deep / pushing shore waves" (Russian national)
  • "Volga-Rechenka deep / I come to you with sorrow" (N. Nolinsk - M. Zubov)
  • "Volga, Volga" - a song from the movie of the same name (1938)
  • "Sormovskaya lyrical" - B. Mokrousov, Dolmatovsky E. (1949)
  • "From the Volga to the Yenisei River" - a song performed by the group "Lube"
  • "Burlak" - "Aquarium" ( "Russian Album" 1992)

Unofficial holiday Volga Day was established in 2008. For the first time it was celebrated in Nizhny Novgorod during the X International Scientific and Industrial Forum "Great Rivers - 2008", and then began to be celebrated in Volgograd, Astrakhan, Yaroslavl, Samara region, the Republic of Tatarstan. Date of holiday - 20 May [34] .

As part of the Volga Day held ecological actions on cleaning shores, scientific discussions and exhibitions. The main purpose of the event - the union's efforts to protect the Volga.

  • Rybakov BA Gerodotova Scythia: Historical and geographical analysis. - M .: Nauka. 1979. - 248 p. - 50 000 copies. Pereizd .: M .: Eksmo; The algorithm 2010.


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Source of the river Volga - YOUTUBE

Source of the Volga. Village Volgoverkhovye, Ostashkovskaya district, Tver region, Russia. Near the village Volgoverkhovye, there is a small wetland lake, from which originates the great Russian river Volga! On the bank of the river, majestic Spaso-Preobrazhensky Cathedral Olginsky monastery.

This film is a small video story about the journey of Selizharovo to the Volga River source, in August 2012.

Istok Volga river: where you are and WHAT TO SEE | JUST EDEM ...

Source of the Volga - is amazingly beautiful place, untouched by modern civilization. Here time seems to have stood still, afraid to disturb and destroy the atmosphere of eternal grace, reigning around. The origins of the Volga near the village takes Volgoverkhovye the Valdai Hills in the Tver region.

Where is the source of the Volga

Get to Volgoverkhovye possible from the town of Ostashkov first on a rather broken road to the village Svapusche (about 50 km) and from there on the dirt road whose condition is much better than the asphalt sheet. From Svapusche to destination 19 km. Buses in Volgoverkhovye not go, so you can be reached only on personal cars (geographical coordinates: 57 ° 15`07 «N 32 ° 28`24« E).

Исток Волги Тверская область

The source of the Volga River on the map:

From a distance, long flowing Volga River ...

Volgoverkhovye village located on a small hill and under the hill of a small swamp originates great Russian river - Volga.

In this swamp there are several springs. One of them, the most profound, which immediately appears over, and has been identified as the source of the Volga as far back as the mid-18th century. Above that a spring is now a chapel, to which are wooden walkways. The chapel itself has a baptismal font, where you can plunge straight to the source. Depth is small: an adult man on the shoulder.

Купель у истока волги

Before the catwalk in 1989, a memorial stone was installed, which states: "The Traveler! Turn your eyes to the source of the Volga! There arises purity and greatness of Russian land. Here the sources of national soul. Keep them. Look to leave. " The place is located at an altitude of 228 meters above sea level.

From swamps Volga flows a small brook, a width of about 50 cm and a depth of 25-30 cm. The water in the newly "born" river of brown because of the peat contained therein, but it is clean and clear. On the catwalk there is a bucket, so if you want you can wash the Volga water or collect it in bottles and take with them.

Где берет исток Волга

At 300 meters from the source through a stream spanned by a small bridge and there is a comfortable descent to the creek, so that in the Volga water can be helped up. However, water is even in the heat cold, not above 15 °.

Holguin monastery

Next to the bridge are the ruins of a stone dam built Holguin convent at the beginning of the last century. The dam is now destroyed, and the monastery there in Volgoverkhovye so far. In Soviet times it was closed, but revived again in 1999.

All that remains of the monastery to the present day - is the Transfiguration Cathedral and the wooden church of St. Nicholas. Services are held here regularly. We were just on the holy day - the day of Saint Olga. At that time, around the monastery held a procession in which the people of this wilderness was quite a lot: about 150 people.

Since the monastery residential buildings were not preserved, the nuns live in the village, their house is easily recognizable by the gazebo.

церковь Николая Чудотворца
Church of St. Nicholas

For a small fee, you can climb the bell tower of the Transfiguration Cathedral and to look down upon the source of the Volga (we did not get, because of the holiday the entrance was temporarily closed).

колокольня Спасо-Преображенского собора
Olginsky monastery

In the forest, growing near the source of the Volga can walk. Paths leading in different directions, there is a great variety. Polyphony is heard around the bird's singing, flying butterflies and dragonflies.

There Volgoverkhovye as in any tourist spot, a small special stock markets, where they sell the usual souvenirs, cakes and honey. Cellular communication in these areas absent, it only appears when leaving the track in Svapusche. Here, despite the fact that the source of the Volga visited by a lot of tourists, offering calmness and relaxation.

3 km from its source Volga crosses the dirt road on which we drove here. This is not a trickle, and a small river with picturesque beaches, forested.

Река Волга: начало

By the way, stopping at the roadside, do not have to get up close to the edge, because the soil is very agile and can easily slide down.

The source of the Volga River to visit a must! Beauty, purity and majestic serenity of this place cause the light of joy and a sense of belonging to the past of our country.

PS On a trip to the source of the Volga wrote our reader Natalia Soboleva. If you too have something to tell, send me an e-mail. mail [email protected] - I gladly will publish your story in the pages of your site

ANSWERS MAIL.RU: Where is the source and the mouth of the river Volga, name it ...?

both sang L. Zykina "Volga flows into the heart of it"

There is an opinion: The common opinion is that the Volga flows into the Caspian Sea, is not true.

Geographically, yes, it's true. It is a river with the name of the Volga, on the 3530 kilometer below Astrakhan, disintegrated into mnogicheslennye ducts and sleeves, forming a delta of Volga, is connected with the Caspian Sea.

But in fact, or more precisely, with a hydrographic point of view, the Volga River flows into the Kama River, and accordingly it is this river empties into the Caspian Sea.

That is not the Volga flows into the Caspian Sea, has long been known. For centuries, the Volga was a living symbol of Russia. A Kama - its largest and most high-water inflow. The first serious scientific observations of these rivers began in 1875. Then, as a result of the measurement of various parameters geographers became known that at the mouth of the Kama River flows 4,300 m3 / s of water, and in the Volga - only 3,100 m3 / s. It tells scientists that the Volga - a tributary of the Kama, which means that it is the Kama flows into the Caspian Sea.

And yet: the Volga flows into the Caspian Sea? And if you check exactlywhat approval from the perspective of the science of hydrology?

There are several scientific rules of allocation of the main river and its tributaries. Take into account the following features are usually the rivers at their confluence: water content; the pool area; structural features of a river system - number and total length of all the tributaries, the length of the main river to the source, the angle of confluence; height position of the source and the valley, the average height of the watershed; the geological age of the valley; width, depth, flow rate, even the color and other indicators.

Water content Volga and Kama almost equal to each other (their average expense respectively 3750 cu. M / c and 3800 cu. M / c). According to the catchment area for the confluence of the Volga place a bit more (take the square as they have developed in vivo -260.9 thousand. Sq. Km versus 251.7 thousand sq. Km.). However, in this territory Volga combines a smaller number of rivers and inferior Kama basin (66.5 thousand. Rivers vs. 73.7). Average and absolute height of the Volga basin is less than the Kama, t. To. In the basin of the Kama are the Ural Mountains.

But the ancient valley of the Kama Valley over the Volga. In the first half of the Quaternary period, before the epoch of maximum glaciation, the Volga was not in its present form. There Kama, which, combining with Vishera directly flows into the Caspian Sea. Stoke modern upper Kama went north to Vychegda. Glaciation led to the reformation of the hydrographic network: Upper Volga, to give water before Don (the largest at the time the river in the European part of the USSR) began to fall into the Kama, almost at a right angle. Lower Volga, and today serves as a natural extension of the Kama and Volga valley not.

You can continue to continue the comparison. However, and given the most important indicators it is clear that the Kama and Volga are very similar to each other, but in most hydrological signs yet Kama is the main river, the Volga and its tributaries. So in the Caspian Sea, strictly speaking, it falls into the Kama and Volga not! However, uchityaya major historical factor - the unifying role of the great Russian river in the creation of a single state, as well as the current economic value of the river, we must admit that the Volga was, is and always will be for any Russian person the main river of our country, a symbol of our country, symbol of Russia and her shrine.

Where originates Volga, where its origins? In Volgoverkhovye!

Где берет начало Волга, где ее исток? В Волговерховье!

May 10, Day 2 . The answer to the question "Where originates Volga?", Surely of interest to many Russians and visitors. I, too, have long wanted to find out the exact location of the source of the great river and visit him personally. It turned out that this is not so easy.

Rather, find the coordinates of the problems was not, but get to the point it was too complicated. Joke, overcome by car dashing road sections to Volgoverkhovye. But the trip was going to be a very exciting and memorable.

Where originates Volga

The world-famous Russian River originates in the Valdai Hills to be exact - in the village Volgoverkhovye Ostashkov district of Tver region. Volga begins its journey from a height of 228 meters above sea level.

It seems that the goal is clear, and found the place on the map. But as it turned out, to get to it, you need to have a real strong desire to touch the origins of Russia. Is closer to the destination, it became clear that the final objective we are separated tens of kilometers of off-road.

To be more precise, the path from the village Ostashkov Volgoverkhovye was unforgettable 67 kilometers.

Path to the source

In the morning we left the hotel in Kuvshinovo. Passing Ostashkov and lake Seliger, went towards Volgoverkhovye. The first ten kilometers on the dirt road crossed with difficulty. Fortunately, along the way we got a unique pyramid Hunger, where we had a wonderful hour, resting and "charge" of cosmic energy on the way forward.

11.20. We continue our way on the "killed" the road. More than an hour of constant shaking and dust. However, the wonderful places around. Russian spring nature pleases the eye! The silence, the blue sky, blooming trees, tender green meadows. Especially, there is a beauty to those small sections of the road when it is this road becomes a little smoother.

 Дорога к истоку Волги, в Волговерховье
The road to the source of the Volga, in Volgoverkhovye

12.10. Amazing! On seemingly quite deserted road is a pointer to Svapusche to which can drive another 13 kilometers. Turn left. Asphalt ends. Absolutely. Next is the dirt "road". Movement speed decreases to 20 km / h.

But the good news is that there are beginning to appear small streams, with a width of several meters, which are already proudly magnify the Volga! Such pointers along the way, we counted about a dozen!

 Дорога к истоку Волги, в Волговерховье
That's right, gaining their strength and power of the great Russian river among the deep forests of the Tver region. Volga here is calm and unhurried.

 Дорога к истоку Волги, в Волговерховье
The road to the source of the Volga, in Volgoverkhovye

Along the coast grow yellow water lilies.

 Дорога к истоку Волги, в Волговерховье
Around silence, occasionally violates a timid voice of the cuckoo. Yes, even the rare passing cars.

On the way to our goal, we cross the Volga several times. It is very interesting to realize it. Especially when you remember the great river close to its mouth, where it becomes a few hundred meters wide, and on which huge ships are free.

Or, for example, near the Ivankovo ​​reservoir, which is also located in the Tver region. That's where the breadth and scope! There we had a wonderful week in Konakovo.

12.50. We drive to the village of Raven. Here we visit a barrier. And now, we're almost there! In the village there is parking, which reveals several coaches. I wonder how they somehow got into this wilderness, but on this road?

But we decide to drive a little forward. And rightly so, because on the outskirts of the village there is another small (free) parking, even for cars. Here are views of it from the bell tower of the temple Olginsky monastery, where we have got later.

Исток Волги, Волговерховье, парковка
Source of the Volga, Volgoverkhovye, parking

Red machine - ours. Near a small market, where they sell souvenirs, honey and cakes. All rooms have toilet type "john". It is located behind the village house, which is visible behind our car. Well, we're going to the Source.

The fact that here is the source of the Volga River, suggests the inscription on the wooden gate leading to the chapel over the well and a small lake.

It will be interesting:   DUE to form clots in blood vessels

 Исток Волги, Волговерховье
Source of the Volga, Volgoverkhovye

memorable place

 Исток Волги, Волговерховье, памятный камень
Source of the Volga, Volgoverkhovye, a memorial stone

The text at the source of the Volga, carved on a granite slab, confirms that it is here begins the great pond.

His first stream is considered to be a stream Persyanka. Next, the river flows 91 km along the lakes Small and Big Horse riding, Sterzh, Vselug, Peno, Volga. This is where she gathers her strength and power, which has over 3900 km.

Volga in length occupies 16 th place in the world and 5th in Russia.

Not far from the brook, giving start to the Volga, is a huge memorial stone. It was laid in 1989, on June 22 - in the 48th anniversary of the Great Patriotic War. The monument is also reminiscent of where we are, and points out that "here the origins of the people's soul."

Stone looks majestic and imposing, as it should be with such a mighty river.

 Исток Волги, Волговерховье, памятный камень
The inscription on the memorial stone reads:

Viator! Turn your eyes to the source of the Volga! There arises purity and greatness of Russian land. Here the sources of national soul. Keep them.

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Next to it immediately becomes a good and peaceful. I would like to lean against it and even lie on top.

 Исток Волги, Волговерховье, памятный камень
Source of the Volga, Volgoverkhovye, a memorial stone

Where the Volga begins

And here we are at the place where the Volga begins. It can not be said that a small shallow stream, which can easily step over, further down the river turns into a mighty river.

 Исток Волги, Волговерховье
Source of the Volga, Volgoverkhovye

Fun murmuring, it flows out of the swamp among the trees and grasses. The water is cold and clear, slightly brownish.

 Исток Волги, Волговерховье
Source of the Volga, Volgoverkhovye

So just need to try and then proudly tell me that we drank from the source of the Volga.

 Исток Волги, Волговерховье
The water was very tasty. Yes, and the holy ...

Holy water and chapel

When we were preparing for the trip, we found out some interesting facts about the source of the Volga. Tiberias area came to be considered the beginning of the river is not so long ago. For a long time the exact location of the source could not be determined.

When this issue sorted out, the brook, which became the beginning of the river, was consecrated Patriarch. Over brook installed wooden chapel on stilts. The house can be passed across the narrow bridge, and from there down to the water on the platform with steps.

 Исток Волги, Волговерховье, часовня
In the center of the chapel - a round little window, which is located above the source itself.

 Исток Волги, Волговерховье, часовня
Source of the Volga, Volgoverkhovye, chapel

And around this beauty! It seems that all nature rejoices in this wonderful place of power. And just feel like trees awaken from hibernation.

 Исток Волги, Волговерховье, часовня и березовые сережки
Source of the Volga, Volgoverkhovye, a chapel and a birch catkins

Gentle May greens harmoniously blends with the blue sky high. Temples are reflected in the blue water of the lake.

 Исток Волги, Волговерховье
Every year, May 29 is a prayer blessing of water takes place, during which the sanctified water source of the Volga.

How to get to the opposite bank of the Volga? On foot!

The width of the stream, which originates from the great body of water, barely more than 40-50 centimeters. Therefore, you can safely put your feet on both banks of the river at the same time, or to jump from one to another Berezhko. Where else is this possible - to visit at once and on the right and on the left bank of the Volga whole ?!

 Исток Волги, Волговерховье
Source of the Volga, Volgoverkhovye

And again, I'm on the right bank, here on the left bank. Just wonders! A wash at the source of the river - it's just not an incomparable pleasure which surprisingly improves the mood and strength of spirit.

 Исток Волги, Волговерховье
Source of the Volga, Volgoverkhovye

From the new power we become huge, and now towered over the great Russian river on a huge stone-boulder!

But we have to wade pass Volga. Think of it, that its width of 4 feet. But it sounds very solid.

 Исток Волги, Волговерховье
We brought all the fun just a bunch of children's joy!

And here is the very first bridge across the Volga! Its width is not more than 3 meters.

 Исток Волги, Волговерховье, 1-й мост через Волгу
But it looks very solid.


Istok Volga is located in the picturesque and some mental edge. Here at once and customize dobreesh only good. I liked that about clean, well maintained and everything is very thought out.

And, of course, pristine nature. Clean, awakening after hibernation. Tender leaves of the trees against the backdrop of a clear blue sky, the first flowers.

 Исток Волги, Волговерховье, весенняя природа
Source of the Volga, Volgoverkhovye, spring nature

Very pleased with a small number of people that we have met in this wonderful place. It was very convenient, since no one no one interfered. You can safely have fun, to walk, to be photographed. What do we do with pleasure and because out of here did not want to.

Interestingly, in the same place originate several famous rivers - the Western Dvina, Dnieper and Lovat. It is virtually pristine area of ​​Russian nature, where you can walk, meditate and just relax.

A dream come true!

That's how I was able to fulfill my long-cherished dream: to be at the source of the great Volga and to feel here really happy. It's great to visit this incredibly quiet, stately and picturesque land.

A trip to the Volga River in Tver region, without a doubt, will be remembered for a lifetime! After all, this place left the most favorable impressions and positive emotions. And it will give new strength to visit other beautiful and amazing places, which are so much on our small planet.

Leave here do not want to. But there is an excellent reason to stay. Near the source of the Volga place are two churches that belong to the nearby monastery of Holguin. And the stories of experienced travelers to the bell tower of a church even can climb for a small fee and take pictures of the surrounding area.

Well, check it out and enjoy a closer look at the temples Olginsky monastery.


Дельта Волги (Астраханская область, Россия) — подробное описание, расположение, отзывы, фото и видео.

Дельта Волги, Астраханский заповедник

Дельта Волги — это самая большая по площади дельта реки во всей Европе, начинающаяся в 46 километрах от Астрахани и насчитывающая до полутысячи рукавов и протоков. За последнее столетие дельта выросла в несколько раз, а ее удивительная и уникальная флора и фауна охраняются государством под именем Астраханского заповедника. Путешественники со всей России и из-за рубежа приезжают сюда, чтобы отдохнуть на базах отдыха или дикарем, совершить сплав по дельте, порыбачить или просто насладиться живописной российской природой.

За последнее столетие дельта Волги выросла в несколько раз, а ее удивительная и уникальная флора и фауна охраняются государством под именем Астраханского заповедника.

Как правило, для отдыха в дельте Волги вам достаточно доехать до Астрахани — самолетом или поездом. Так, перелет из Москвы займет 2,5 часа, а на поезде вы будете ехать 1,5 дня. В аэропорт Астрахани сегодня летают самолеты из таких российских городов, как Москва, Санкт-Петербург, Сочи, Казань. До самой дельты или ее баз отдыха вам придется добираться из Астрахани на автомобиле или даже на катере около двух часов. Вы также можете приобрести тур в самой Астрахани и отправиться в путешествие группой из нескольких человек. Попасть в дельту Волги вы также можете из Волгограда.

Климат дельты Волги

Самый активный сезон здесь длится с апреля по май, а также с сентября по октябрь. С июня по август отдыху и рыбалке в дельте Волги препятствует не только жара, но и мошкара. Правда, в августе происходит цветение полей лотоса, что нередко привлекает туристов. В целом климат дельты Волги, как и ее природа, очень разнообразен и близок к резко континентальному. В противоположность жаркому лету здесь нередко стоят мягкие и малоснежные зимы. Весна и осень — очень мягкие и комфортные для отдыха. Впрочем, нередко погода неожиданно меняется: то трава в январе зазеленеет, то польет в июле мягкий грибной дождик и собьет жару прохладой.

Астраханский заповедник стал одним из первых в России — он был создан еще в начале 20 века, а в его конце появился второй заповедник — Богдинско-Баскунчакский. Здесь также имеется 4 государственных заказника, множество охотничьих хозяйств, несколько государственных памятников природы, озеро Тинаки с его лечебными грязями и известным на всю страну курортом. Дельта Волги — невероятно живописный край: вы увидите луга и пустынные ландшафты, леса и заросли тростника, лотосовые поля, множество рек, озер, островков и песчаных барханов. Разнообразна и фауна дельты Волги — розовые и кудрявые пеликаны, бакланы, фазаны, лебеди-шипуны, каспийские тюлени, кабаны, антилопы и сайгаки, а также более 280 видов птиц.

В водах дельты обитает более 70 видов рыб, в том числе и знаменитая красная рыба — русский осетр, стерлядь, севрюга, белуга! Неудивительно, что сюда съезжаются рыбаки из всей России и ближнего зарубежья, а Астраханский край уже несколько столетий считается рыбной столицей страны.

Для занятий рыбной ловлей к вашим услугам в дельте Волги расположено множество рыболовных баз с живописными названиями: «Золотой лотос», «Заповедная сказка», «Фортуна», «Астория», River House и др. Рыболовные базы дельты Волги предлагают не только разнообразный уровень поселения (от кемпинга до комфортабельных коттеджей), но и широкий спектр дополнительных услуг: предоставление лодок, сопровождение егеря, условия для копчения, соления и вяления ваших рыболовных трофеев и многое другое. Конечно, вы можете отдыхать и дикарями — но тогда вам придется самостоятельно искать «рыбные места», а также учитывать, что для некоторых мест требуется специальное разрешение, которое, как правило, есть у рыболовных баз.

Долина лотосов — одна из красивейших природных достопримечательностей дельты Волги. Многие народы, особенно восточные, наделяют лотос священными свойствами из-за его красоты и лечебной силы. Здесь, в дельте Волги, для лотосов созданы все оптимальные природные условия. Нередко они вырастают в высоту более двух метров. Проплывая на лодке по долине лотосов, вы почувствуете себя словно в безбрежном море из цветов. Особенно приятно путешествовать в первой половине дня, когда цветок раскрывается. После захода солнца бутоны закрываются. Цветут лотосы с конца июля до начала сентября, но так как июль — очень жаркий месяц, плюс в это время много мошкары, приезжать лучше всего в конце августа.

Проплывая на лодке по долине лотосов, вы почувствуете себя словно в безбрежном море из цветов.

Существует несколько версий того, как восточный цветок попал в дельту Волги: возможно, его завезли монахи-буддисты, а может, семена этих божественных растений принесли перелетные птицы. Так или иначе, полюбоваться на долину лотосов нередко приезжают туристы со всего мира. К тому же, если верить ученым, сам аромат лотоса обладает целебными свойствами, снимая стресс и депрессию и заряжая бодростью.

В 1995 году в дельте Волги был образован государственный памятник природы под названием «Урочище Кордон». По сути это небольшой степной участок, известный и уникальный тем, что здесь, в обычных естественных условиях, растет мексиканский кактус рода опунции. В начале мае этот кактус даже цветет — большими розовыми или желтыми цветами.

В отличие от лотосов, история появления здесь мексиканских кактусов хорошо известна — в начале 20 века они были высажены учеными в декоративных целях и прекрасно прижились в местных условиях.

«Рощей любви» называют Орловский лес, памятник природы в дельте Волги, расположенный в 15 км на север от города Харабали. Деревья были высажены здесь в начале 20 века — специально, чтобы остановить наступающие пески. Со временем лес из уникальных для здешних мест деревьев так разросся, что стал одной из достопримечательностей края.

Существует поверье, что если приехать сюда осенью и сорвать в Орловском лесу лист с самого могучего дерева, написать на нем имя любимого человека, а листочек засушить, то сердце вашего возлюбленного «присохнет» к вам навсегда.

Если вы путешествуете по дельте Волги, посетите также и саму Астрахань, которую нередко называют «южной Венецией», Чертово городище в Икрянинском районе со свидетельствами золотоордынского поселения, прогуляйтесь по природным заповедникам, совершите путешествие на лодке или теплоходе, отдохните на одной из многочисленных туристических и рыболовных баз и, наконец, отведайте вкуснейшей стерляжьей ухи. В этом живописном крае первозданной природы вы всегда сможете найти себе занятие или развлечение по душе.

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